The word "literature" has different meanings depending on who is using it. It could be applied broadly to mean any symbolic record, encompassing everything from images and sculptures to letters.

martes, 20 de noviembre de 2012

Hello World "Merry Christmas" Starts Early Around The World... From FIX

trussel.comChristmas Island. photo by Franco Salmoiraghi,
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hawaiibassfishing.comMy 4 pound Christmas Island bonefish. A school of giant Manta Rays inside ...
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flickr.comChristmas Island red crab, Christmas Island, Australia
500 × 357 - 153 k - jpg Island. Opposition immigration spokesman Scott Morrison's column ...
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allposters.esAerial View of Christmas Island, Kiribati Lámina fotográfica
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tourismuptodate.blogsp...These crabs dominate most areas of Christmas Island, beach, road, ...
550 × 413 - 76 k - jpg population of Christmas Island is growing and the children are educated ...
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oregonflyfishingblog.comThis is a newer lodge on Christmas Island. Ikari House has a great staff, ...
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worldatlas.commap of christmas island, christmas island maps
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indexmundi.comFlag of Christmas Island Flag description: territorial flag; ...
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tourismnewsinfo.comFishing In Clear Water Christmas Island
550 × 367 - 64 k - jpg Island - Marine Life
400 × 353 - 53 k - jpg Princess at Christmas Island (Deeyoung, Mar 2010)
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anglingdirectholidays.comThe one and only beautiful Christmas Island, pure remote bliss for some ...
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eol.jsc.nasa.govKiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island) Click here to view full image (247 ...
1748 × 1389 - 247 k - jpg, Pacific Ocean, Christmas Island, Australia Premium Poster
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adamsethfox.blogspot.comChristmas Island Red Crab Swarms
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en.wikipedia.orgFile:Christmas Island Australia 76-fr.png
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janeresture.comChristmas Island has been almost continuously occupied only since 1882, ...
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australiangeographic.c...Each year, millions of red crabs traverse Christmas Island on ther perilous ...
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Welcome to Spring Semester 2013

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Introduction to Genetics and Evolution

Mohamed Noor

A whirlwind introduction to evolution and genetics, from basic principles to current applications, including how disease genes are mapped and how we leverage evolutionary concepts to aid humanity.
This week we will continue to look at issues of population genetics. These are the class materials we'll work with this week.Problem Set: This week is the sixth graded problem set: Population Genetics Problem Set, Week 7.
This assignment should be completed at least once before the Nov. 26th, 12:00 pm EDT deadline. Please read the grading policy (if you haven't already done so) before completing the problem set, to better understand the requirements for the course.

There is also a set of practice problems available. The download links for the problems and their solutions is available to the right of lecture #6 in week 7. These problems are not graded nor are they required for understanding the assigned problem set. They are purely for the benefit of students that wish to have additional material to work through and check their understanding of the class topics.

Don't forget to check your graded problem set from Week 6, also in the wiki page for Problem Sets and Exams! Also, please post in the Problem Set Week 6 forum if you got a correct answer for one of the problems, in the threads provided (the "How Did You Correctly Solve..." series), so that all students can see the line of thinking that reached a correct answer!

Lecture: Natural selection: Fundamentals

  • Darwin and Wallace emphases
  • Reiterate-- mathematical inevitability & 3 conditions
  • Simulating selection at a single locus
    • Dominance matters
    • Concept of “relative fitness”
    • Effects on genotype and allele frequencies
Lecture: Natural selection: Types at single loci

  • Directional selection
    • Different types, vary with dominance
    • Leads to loss of one allele eventually
  • Heterozygote advantage (overdominance)
    • Alleles maintained at predictable equilibrium frequency
  • Heterozygote disadvantage (underdominance)
    • “Unstable” equilibrium
      • Alleles will probably be lost in real population
  • Negative frequency dependent selection
    • Selection changes based on frequency of alleles
    • Alleles maintained at predictable equilibrium frequency
  • Lecture: Natural selection: Types acting on traits

    • Directional selection (not to be confused with single-locus version)
      • Changes mean phenotype of population
    • Stabilizing selection
      • No change in mean phenotype, but loss of variance
    • Disruptive selection
      • No change in mean phenotype, but increase in variance
    • Final thoughts-- Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection
      • Selection reduces variation in fitness
      • Rate of increase in fitness is proportional to the genetic variance in fitness
    Lecture: Sampling error over single generations

    • Larger samples maintain representation
      • Larger population sizes more constant in allele frequencies
    • In one generation, alleles about equally likely to increase or decrease in frequency
      • Unlikely to stay at “exactly” same frequency
    • Average change in allele frequency = (pq)/2N
    Lecture: Sampling error over multiple generations

    • In long term, drift always leads to fixation or loss of alleles variable at a locus eventually
    • Probability of eventual fixation equals allele frequency
      • Probability of eventual loss equals one minus allele frequency
    • Same principle for multiple populations-- average across many stays same
    • If drift is strong, can overpower selection and make somewhat bad allele fix
    Lecture: Rate of neutral molecular evolution

    • If mutations arise at a roughly constant rate, can predict
    • Probability of mutation arising in large population size directly cancels with probability of fixation so rate of arising & fixing of neutral mutations is independent of population size
    • If have mutation rate, can estimate time to common ancestor
      • Must divide by two (since mutations arise in both lineages)
      • Sample calculations
  • Introduce neutralist vs selectionist views of variation
  • Optional Suggested Readings:

    • Evolutionary Analysis, 4/e, Freeman & Herron, pages 182-207, 232-241, 346-350
    • Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 10/e Griffiths et al, pages 661-666

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